Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
The Representative on Freedom of the Media

Amsterdam Recommendations
14 June 2003
Freedom of the Media and the Internet

Convinced that no matter what technical means are used to channel the work of journalists to the public – be it TV, radio, newspapers or the Internet – the basic constitutional value of freedom of the media must not be questioned;

Reaffirming that this principle, which is older than most of today’s media, is one that all
modern European societies are committed to;

Alarmed that censorship is being imposed on the Internet and new measures are being
developed to prevent the free flow of information;

Reaffirming the principles expressed in the Joint Statement by OSCE, UN and OAS in
London on 20 November 2001;

Taking note of the Council of Europe Declaration on freedom of communication on the
Internet from 28 May 2003;

The OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media invited representatives from academia, media, specialised NGOs from Eu rope and the U.S. as well as from the European Parliament, Council of Europe, European Commission, and OSCE to take part in a conference on “Freedom of the Media and the Internet” held 13 -14 June 2003 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

During the conference the following recommendations, proposed by the OSCE
Representative on Freedom of the Media, were made:


  • The Internet provides a number of different services. Some of them are still in the
    development phase. They serve as tools, often indispensable ones, for citizens as well as
    journalists and thus are important for a free media landscape. The technology as such
    must not be held responsible for any potential misuse. Innovation must not be hampered.

  • Access to digital networks and the Internet must be fostered. Barriers at all levels, be they
    technical, structural or educational, must be dismantled.

  • To a considerable extent the fast pace of innovation of digital networks is due to the fact
    that most of the basic code and software are in the public domain, free for everyone to use and enhance. This free-of-charge infrastructure is one of the key elements of freedom of expression on the Internet. Access to the public domain is important for both technical
    and cultural innovation and must not be endangere d through the adoption of new
    provisions related to patent and copyright law.

Freedom of Expression

  • The advantages of a vast network of online resources and the free flow of information
    outweigh the dangers of misusing the Internet. But criminal exploita tion of the Internet
    cannot be tolerated. Illegal content must be prosecuted in the country of its origin but all
    legislative and law enforcement activity must clearly target only illegal content and not
    the infrastructure of the Internet itself.

  • The global prosecution of criminal content, such as child pornography, must be warranted
    and also on the Internet all existing laws must be observed. However, the basic principle
    of freedom of expression must not be confined and there is no need for new legislation.

  • In a modern democratic and civil society citizens themselves should make the decision on
    what they want to access on the Internet. The right to disseminate and to receive
    information is a basic human right. All mechanisms for filtering or blocking content are
    not acceptable.

  • Any means of censorship that are unacceptable within the ‘classic media’ must not be
    used for online media. New forms of censorship must not be developed.


  • Computer and Internet literacy must be fostered in order to strengthen the technical
    understanding of the importance of software and code. This is necessary so as to keep
    open a window of opportunity for defining the future role of the Internet and its place in
    civil society.

  • Internet literacy must be a primary educa tional goal in school, training courses should
    also be set up for adults. Special training of journalists should be introduced in order to
    facilitate their ability to deal with online content and to ensure a high standard of
    professional journalism.

Professional Journalism

  • More and more people are able to share their views with a widening audience through the
    Internet without resorting to ‘classic media’. Privacy of communication between
    individuals must be respected. The infrastructure of the Internet is used for many different
    purposes and any relevant regulatory bodies must be aware of that.

  • Journalism is changing in the digital era and new media forms are developing that deserve
    the same protection as ‘classic media’.

  • Traditional and widely accepted values of professional journalism, acknowledging the
    responsibility of journalists, should be fostered so as to guarantee a free and responsible
    media in the digital era.


© Copyright 2001-2003 Toate drepturile rezervate. Bogdan MANOLEA